Dyslexia is a specific learning disability characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, poor spelling, and decoding abilities. These challenges stem from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

Dyslexia is neurobiological in origin, meaning it is linked to how the brain is structured and functions. It is not a result of poor teaching, instruction, or upbringing, nor is it tied to intelligence. Individuals with dyslexia typically have a normal to high IQ. Dyslexia is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate strategies and interventions, individuals can improve their reading skills and succeed academically and professionally.

Early identification and intervention are crucial for individuals with dyslexia. Tailored teaching approaches, such as structured literacy programs that emphasize phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies, are effective. Technology, including text-to-speech and speech-to-text software, can also support reading and writing tasks.

Understanding dyslexia is essential for educators, parents, and the individuals themselves to foster supportive environments and employ effective strategies for learning and communication. Awareness and accommodations can significantly mitigate the challenges associated with dyslexia, enabling individuals to achieve their full potential.